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The Everything Psychology Book: Explore the Human Psyche and Understand Why We Do the Things We Do by Lynda L. Warwick, Lesley Bolton

Top Ten Reasons to Study Psychology x Introduction xi 1 Psychology--Yesterday and Today 1 What Is Psychology? 2 Psychology in the Early Years 6 Psychoanalysis 7 Behaviorism 8 Humanistic Psychology and Positive Psychology 10 Cognitive Psychology 11 Biological Psychology 12 Culture, Ethnicity, and Diversity in Modern Psychology 12 How to Become a Psychologist 14 2 How Psychologists Know What They Know 15 Experiments--The Cornerstone of Psychology 16 Observational Studies 18 Case Histories and Interviews 19 Self-Report Questionnaires and Surveys 20 Psychological Tests 21 The Essential Role of Statistics 22 Ethics in Psychological Research 24 3 The Biology of Psychology 27 Neurons and What They Do 28 The Central Nervous System 29 The Peripheral Nervous System 30 The Endocrine System 32 Genes and What They Do 33 Gene Expression 34 Evolution and Humans 37 4 Brain and Mind--What Makes Us Human 39 Origins of the Human Brain 40 The Forebrain's Structures and Functions 41 The Cerebrum 42 Traditional Approaches to Studying the Brain 43 Neuroscience and Brain Imaging--The Modern Approach 44 What Is Mind--Earlier Views 46 What Is Mind--Views Based on Neuroscience 47 5 How We Experience Our World 49 Sensation and Perception 50 The Eyes and Visual Sensation 51 Visual Perception 54 The Ears and Auditory Sensation 57 Auditory Perception 59 Smell and Taste--The Chemical Senses 60 The Skin Senses 61 Kinesthesis and Equilibrium 62 6 Emotions--Feeling Up, Feeling Down 63 Emotions Versus Motives 64 The Physiology of Emotion 66 The Brain's Role in Emotion 67 Varieties of Emotions 68 Explanations of Emotionality 69 Aggressive Behavior 70 Do We All Have the Same Emotions? 73 7 Motives--Why We Do the Things We Do 75 Varieties of Motives 76 The Brain's Role in Motivation 76 The Physiology of Motivation 78 The Hunger Motive 80 Eating Disorders 82 The Motive for Sex 84 Sexual Orientation 86 8 Altered States of Consciousness 87 Levels of Consciousness 88 Sleep 89 Sleep Disorders 91 Why Do We Dream? 92 Hypnosis and Its Uses 93 Meditation 95 Psychoactive Drugs and Their Effects 95 Drug Abuse and Dependence 97 9 Conditioning and Learning 99 Habituation--The Most Basic Form of Learning 100 Conditioning 101 Classical Conditioning 101 Applications of Classical Conditioning 103 Operant Conditioning 104 Applications of Operant Conditioning 106 Learning Through Observation and Imitation 109 10 How We Remember, Why We Forget 111 Memory--An Overview 112 Sensory Memory and Incoming Stimulation 113 Short-Term Memory and Working Memory 114 Long-Term Memories and How They Are Stored 116 Explanations of Forgetting 118 The Repression Debate 121 Techniques for Improving Your Memory 122 11 Language and Communication 125 Grammar and the Vocabulary of Language 126 Phonetics and Phonology--The Sound System 127 Morphology--The Formation of Words 129 Syntax--How We Create Phrases and Sentences 131 Semantics and Pragmatics--Meaning and Language in Social Contexts 132 Gestures and Other Nonverbal Communication 136 Can Other Animals Learn Human Language? 137 12 Thinking, Knowing, and Solving Problems 139 The Cognitive Perspective 140 Units of Knowledge 141 Formal Reasoning 143 Informal Reasoning 144 Strategies in Problem Solving 146 13 Personality and Personality Tests 149 What Is Personality? 150 Heredity, Environment, and Personality 151 Traits 154 Psychodynamic Views 156 Psychoanalytic Approach 157 Humanistic Views 159 Popular Personality Tests 160 14 Coping with Life's Difficulties and Achieving Well-Being 163 Stressors and Stress 164 How Stress Affects Physical Health 167 How Stress Affects Mental Health 169 Adjustment Disorders 171 Job Burnout 172 Better Ways of Coping with Stress 174 Defense Mechanisms 175 Positive Psychology and Subjective Well-Being 176 15 Disorders: When Thinking and Emotionality Go Awry 177 What Is Abnormal? 178 Anxiety Disorders 181 Mood Disorders 184 Schizophrenia 187 Personality Disorders 189 Causes of Mental Disorders 191 16 Psychotherapy and Other Approaches to Treatment 195 Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Approaches 196 Medical Approaches 198 Humanistic Approaches 202 Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches 203 Group Therapy 206 Helping Yourself 208 17 Social Cognition--Thinking about Yourself and Others 211 Humans as Social Beings 212 Beliefs and Attitudes 213 Social Schemata and Scripts 215 Forming Impressions 216 Interpreting Others' Behavior--And Your Own 218 Stereotyping and Prejudice 220 18 Social Interactions and Interpersonal Behavior 223 The Person and the Situation 224 Compliance 226 Conformity and Peer Pressure 227 Obedience 228 Friendships and Romantic Relationships 229 Altruism 231 Aggression and Its Causes 232 The Mentality of Groups 233 19 Human Development--Conception to Birth 235 Genes, Gametes, and Conception 236 The Embryonic Period 238 The Fetal Period 239 The Birth Process 240 Maternal Health and Nutrition 241 Maternal Diseases and Drug Use 244 20 Human Development--Infancy and Childhood 247 Physical Growth 248 Development of Motor Skills 249 Cognitive Development--How Infants and Children Think 250 Language Development--Part Prewired, Part Learned 252 Developing a Sense of Self 254 Social and Emotional Development 256 21 Human Development--Adolescence 259 The Growth Spurt and Entrance into Puberty 260 Cognitive Development--How Adolescents Think 261 Developing a Sense of Identity 263 Discovering Sexuality 264 Teenage Pregnancy 265 22 Human Development--Adulthood, Aging, and Dying 267 Physical Health 268 Changes During Middle Adulthood 269 Changes in Sexuality 271 Cognitive Growth and Decline 272 Retirement 275 Death--The Final Stage in Development 276 Appendix A Glossary of Psychological Terms 277 Appendix B Resources 283 Index 285

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